The answer is complex yet also simple, because the water on Long Island and in other municipalities across New York State, just would never pass, according to Dr. Carmine Vasile. A former Grumman Inventor of the year with a PhD in Electrophysics, Dr. Vasile believes his son, an aunt and countless thousands of other people who are living with or have died of cancer on Long Island are victims of radon poisoning. It is his contention that the failure of government to take a stand and make a definitive mark past which radon would be unacceptable in municipal water supplies, like the Suffolk County Water Supply, is potentially the reason for the death of his son from brain cancer and his aunt from lung cancer (she was never a smoker).
Revised Abstract Including Rn-222's Daughter, Po-218, which has an EPA MCL of 15 pCi/L
From the CHANGE.ORG Petition Website posted by Dr, Vasile...
Two decades ago, a New York survey of hundreds of community wells regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act found Radon-222 (Rn-222) was present in all 436 samples in concentrations ranging from 13 pCi/L to 26,800 pCi/L -- 2.6 to 5,360 times Vermont’s Radon-action level of 5 pCi/L -- yet not one recommendation was enacted to protect us from the leading cause of death in America for both men and women – RADON 
Sadly, the NYSDOH failed to consider increased cancer rates in families using private wells they knew were being contaminated by wastewater from public wells in areas having cesspools or septic systems. Although there is no MCL for Radon, the Gross Alpha MCL for its Alpha-emitting decay products is 15 pCi/L according to the November 2001 EPA Directive 9283_1_14 (Attachment A) – which is not enforced even though a subsequent 2008 Duke University Report “Radon transfer from groundwater used in showers to indoor air” (Vinsen,et.al.) showed huge amounts of Polonium-210 was produced by Radon-222 released from showers in 17 homes.
Of the 18 homes tested, the only home having safe Rn-222 levels was equipped with a water aeration system that vented radon gases outdoors. Measurements of Rn-222 in the incoming water supply of all 18 homes indicated both hot and cold water storage tanks contained Po-218 in Secular - Equilibrium with its parent Rn-222 at dangerous levels ranging from 4,266 to 21,897 pCi/L -- 284 to 14,598 times its MCL, excluding other Alpha-emitting Rn-222 decay products (Po-214 and Po-210).
During the Ford Administration, for no good reason EPA officials specifically excluded Radon's Alpha particle activity from the Safe Drinking Water Act’s Radionuclides Rule of 1976. This made it unsafe to use water contaminated by nuclear or medical waste, naturally occurring Radon gases and dozens of their carcinogenic decay products. As shown in the Bar Chart, by 2005 Radon became a leading cause of death; about 21,000 deaths per year, compared to 17,400 for drunk drivers.
This prompted the Surgeon General to issue this Radon Advisory in January of 2005: "Indoor radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and breathing it over prolonged periods can present a significant health risk to families all over the country.
It's important to know that this threat is completely preventable. Radon can be detected with a simple test and fixed through well-established venting techniques." He (the Surgeon General), gave no estimate of the number lung cancer deaths in smokers or ex-smokers that were actually caused by Radon even though he knew breathing air containing as little as 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L-air) is equivalent to smoking a pack of cigarettes a day from the instant a baby takes its first breath.
Radon-222 (Rn-222) is the longest-lived Radon isotope; 9 time heavier than air, with a Specific Activity of 160,000 picocuries per picogram and a half-life of 3.8 days. This means 8 pCi/L of Rn-222 weighs 50 trillionths of a microgram (50 E-18g). Yet inhaling such a tiny amount all day long has the same lung-cancer risk as smoking about two packs a day. Unlike other states, NY doesn’t require Radon testing or remediation; even when homes are sold.
These “well-established venting techniques” have been established for Radon-contaminated air and water, yet State and Federal health officials continue to ignore EPA Radon Risk Charts in “A Citizen's Guide to Radon” @ www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html and have failed to set a Radon-MCL since 1976. This is a National Disgrace that no State Governor or President since Nixon has addressed.
NEW YORK DISGRACE
Over 2 decades ago, the NYS Health Department (NYSDOH) surveyed hundreds of drinking water wells for the longest lived Radon isotope, Rn-222, which has a 3.8-day Half Life and can accumulate after repeated daily showers in poorly-vented bath and shower rooms. In September 1990, an unpublicized Radon-report was issued by the NYSDOH; 21/2 years after the Suffolk County Department of Health Services (SCDHS) issued its Radon-report.
The State’s survey included 10 wells in Suffolk County, but only one operated by the Suffolk County Water Authority (SCWA). The SCDHS surveyed 5 SCWA wells. By comparison, SCWA tests of hundreds of wells were positive Radon, as shown in Radioactivity tables @ www.gfxtechnology.com/Radon.html
The little known State survey showed Rn-222 was present in all 436 samples in concentrations ranging from 13 pCi/L to 26,800 pCi/L -- 2.6 to 5,360 times Vermont’s Radon-action level. The highest average levels occurred in Putnam, Orange, Westchester, Rockland and Dutchess Counties. One hundred sixty one samples (37 percent) were found to contain Rn-222 levels above 500 pCi/L – a hundred times Vermont’s 5 pCi/L mandatory aeration level -- established to prevent Radon from entering homes via tap water.
HIGHEST LEVELS FOUND IN HUNTINGTON SCWA WELL
The highest level reported in the 1988 SCDHS survey was 460 pCi/L for a 504-foot SCWA well located on Meade Drive in Huntington. At 500 pCi/L-water, 30 minutes of daily showering with low-flow showerheads (10 LPM) will release about 150,000 pCi of Rn-222; enough to fill a 10,000 liter bathroom with 15 pCi/L-air.
Unless the bathroom is well vented, another 15 pCi/L-air will be added each day thereafter. In 3.8 days, the first Rn-222 dose will have decayed 50%; leaving behind varying amounts of 7 metallic, radioactive isotopes: Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210 and stable Pb-206. That’s why the State of Vermont requires Radon removal systems like that shown @ www.wellguy.com/radonremoval.html if a water source has over 5 pCi/L of gross alpha radioactivity.
By comparison, here's what the NYSDOH has to say about Radon Mitigation: "Radon in water is usually not the primary source of radon in the home. If a radon in air mitigation system appears not to be reducing radon levels, then radon in water may be evaluated as a pathway. Presently there is no guideline or recommended action level for radon in water concentration. Radon in water may pose an inhalation risk. This risk results when radon is released into the air when water is used for showering and other household purposes. Approaches to mitigate radon in water are aeration or filtration using granular activated carbon."(www.health.ny.gov/environmental/radiological/radon/mitigation/what_is_mitigation.htm)
Long Island Myth Debunked and "RADON CHIMNEYS"
These surveys debunked the myth that Long Island has no Radon, as recently alleged by Suffolk County Executive Steve Bellone, in response to complaints. They also proved Long Island’s major sources of surface Radon are deep wells that serve as “Radon Chimneys”, in addition to shallower wells near its many Superfund and CERCLA sites.
Yet not one NYS Governor or Health Department mandated “well-established venting techniques” to protect us, even those living near the Vermont border. Neither survey report presented test results for Rn-222’s longest-lived offspring; Lead-210 (Pb-210, 22 yr ½-life) and Polonium-210 (Po-210, 140 day ½-life), which also accumulate after repeated showers and ARE regulated under the NYS Health Code with an MCL of 4 mrem/yr for the former and 15 pCi/L for the latter; contrary to County Executive Bellone’s erroneous assertion:
“With respect to your specific questions, radon levels are naturally low on Long Island compared with background levels in other areas of the country, tritium levels have been well under drinking water standards, and there have been no confirmed significant detections of lead-210 (which is a naturally occurring radionuclide for which there is currently no drinking water standard)…”.  
Both reports included tests results for a small fraction of radioactive wells operated by the SCWA; a few of which are identified in dozens of radioactivity tables @ www.gfxtechnology.com/Radon.html showing Radon levels far above Vermont’s action level.None of these tables have test results for Po-210 and only those located in and around Shirley contain Pb-210 results.
As of this date, not one recommendation by former NYSDOH Commissioner David Axelrod, M.D. has been adopted and lung cancer rates continued to rise, as well as skin and other waterborne cancers; especially on Long Island as documented in the book Welcome to Shirley by Kelly McMasters and its film version: The Atomic States of America.
DEADLY ISOTOPES RISE UP "RADON CHIMNEYS" CALLED WATER WELLS
Obviously, deep wells serve as chimneys that allow Radon and other gases trapped in deep aquifers to rise and create deadly indoor “Radon Smog”. Like all lead isotopes, Pb-210 and its stable daughter Pb-206 will accumulate in our bodies unless removed by chelation. Unlike the latter isotope, Pb-210 continually emits deadly Gamma rays that exit lungs to also cause breast, skin, and other cancers. Although NYS Health regulations continue to exclude Rn-222, they place limits on total Lead and two of Rn-222’s most deadly decay products: Pb-210 and Po-210. Yet tests results for Pb-210 & Po-210 are absent from every published NYS water quality report; including hundreds operated by America’s largest public water company @ www.scwa.com, which has 773 community wells up to 710 feet deep. Dozens, if not hundreds, are contaminated by radioactive plumes from the notorious Superfund site featured in the NETFLIX Movie, The Atomic State of America, with Alec Baldwin -- whose mother founded the Stony Brook Cancer Center. In 2014 Stony Brook began offering a Lung Cancer Screening Program that excludes non-smokers, unknowingly exposed to Radon every time they shower. (See screening requirements @ www.gfxtechnology.com/LCFS.pdf)
The SCWA has been reporting huge amounts Radon, unlike other water companies in Suffolk County. For over a decade, the SCWA has been reporting enormous amounts of Pb-210 to the State and EPA -- hundreds of times its NYS and EPA MCL of 4 mrem/yr -- but no test results for its Alpha-emitting progeny, Po-210, which has an MCL of 15 pCi/L.
Since Po-210 has a Half-Life of 140 days compared to 22 years for its grandparent (Pb-210), it is often used to accurately calculate Pb-210 concentrations using Bateman’s Equations. But according to Suffolk County Executive Bellone, a mysterious “anomaly of the analysis” caused hundreds of Pb-210 test results to be deemed erroneous in 2013. He didn’t explain why the NYSDOH failed to close these wells a decade before the discovery of this “anomaly of the analysis”. They remain in service in Shirley creating patients for Long Island’s thriving "Cancer Industry".
It seems the County Executive didn’t read the SCWA’s 2012 water quality report, or earlier versions certified by County-appointed water managers; including this statement: "In 2011 we monitored for radon, and gross alpha and beta particles at 87 locations throughout our distribution system. The results for each distribution area are noted on pages 13 through 19. Overall, the test results for radon ranged from non-detect (no radon found) to 303 pCi/L. Currently there is no established state or federal MCL for radon." (Quote from
 “REPORT OF STATEWIDE SURVEILLANCE FOR RADON IN SELECTED COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS, NEW YORK STATE 1989 – 1990”; September 1990, by David Axelrod, M.D., New York State Department of Health Commissioner and Kenneth E. Slade, P.E., Bureau of Public Water Supply Protection Contaminant Studies Section. [www.gfxtechnology.com/1990-Rn.pdf]
 “RADON IN DRINKING WATER”, March 1988, by David Harris, M.D., M.P.H., Commissioner Suffolk County Department of Health Services (SCDHS), & Aldo Andreoli, P.E., Director, Division of Environmental Health. [www.gfxtechnology.com/1988-Rn.pdf]
Radon Chimneys and Smog
 Dozens of radionuclides tables @ www.gfxtechnology.com/Radon.html show huge amounts of Radon gas from deep, glacial aquifers capped by thick layers of impervious clay are being brought to the surface by 773 community wells up to 710 feet deep that act as “Radon Chimneys” that emit “Radon Smog” 9 times heavier than air. As this radioactive smog spreads over Suffolk’s homes, Pine Barrens and rich farmland, it quickly decays into seven (7) radioactive metals. Only Pb-210 and Po-210 are regulated by Table 7 “Radiological Maximum Contaminant Level Determination” @ www.health.ny.gov/regulations/nycrr/title_10/part_5/subpart_5-1_tables.htm and Table 16. “Additional Contaminants for which Reporting is Required Pursuant to 5-1.72 (e)-(h) of this Subpart.”
 Suffolk County Executive Steve Bellone posted these erroneous comments on his Facebook page: “With respect to your specific questions, radon levels are naturally low on Long Island compared with background levels in other areas of the country, tritium levels have been well under drinking water standards, and there have been no confirmed significant detections of lead-210 (which is a naturally occurring radionuclide for which there is currently no drinking water standard)…The Suffolk County Department of Health Services, Office of Water Resources currently tests all community water supply wells for radionuclides every 3 years, except that Suffolk County Water Authority wells closest to Brookhaven National Laboratory are sampled every year as a precaution. In addition, there is also a monitoring well network up gradient of the Suffolk County Water Authority Wells that are frequently sampled by Suffolk County Department of Health Services staff, Suffolk County Water Authority and Brookhaven National Laboratory. This sampling exceeds the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act…The NYSDOH, the USEPA, and the SCDHS have previously reviewed the Suffolk County Water Authority’s Annual Water Quality Report supplements that included detections of Lead-210. However, these detections were determined to be likely false positives, and subsequent resampling by SCWA in 2013 did not identify any detections. The standard error, also known as uncertainty, for nearly all of the historical detections were close to or more than the actual measurements reported by Suffolk County Water Authority’s contract laboratory. The Suffolk County Water Authority has investigated the high uncertainties and they were informed by their contract laboratory that the results were an anomaly of the analysis.” [Quotation from Exhibit A @ www.gfxtechnology.com/Rn-Fraud.html is also contradicted by SCWA test results in Exhibits C and D.]
EDITOR"S NOTE: After publishing this editorial and Dr. Vasile's Research on radon, I was contacted by Dr. Vasile who added this valuable information to the topic. The following response by Dr. Vasile was provided to answer a question posed by one of our readers.
Do GAC filters become Radioactive?
GAC tanks capture radon atoms in the water and hold them until most have decayed away. As they decay they emit gamma radiation. Walking by a GAC tank would not present any risk. A GAC tank however should never be located within a few feet of where a person spends hours at a time. A second consideration is that the carbon in the tank needs to be replaced before it accumulates too much Lead 210, a by-product of radon . GAC systems should only be used for water that has up to 20,000 pCi/l in the water. In order to be at the maximum allowable Lead 210, a carbon tank needs to be efficiently filtering radon in water in a four person house for about 5 years. If there is half as much radon in the water or half as much water usage then it would take twice as long to get to the same level or about 10 years.
" Alpha radiation is measured in picocuries per liter (pCi/L). If alpha radiation is detected at or above 5 pCi/L in your home well, additional testing is needed to pinpoint the source. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set 15 pCi/L as the maximum contaminant level for public drinking water supplies. Yet New York State has not established any MCL for radon in our municipal drinking water supplies. This level is calculated as the total alpha radiation minus uranium and radon."
"Radon in Water Mitigation information for reducing radon in well water using aeration treatment and GAC radon in water removal " @ http://www.wpb-radon.com/radon_in_water_information.html#safe
" Radon in Water Mitigation information for reducing radon in well water using aeration treatment and GAC radon in water removal" @ http://www.wpb-radon.com/radon_in_water_information.html#city wtr
The latter states: " Are there any government Radon in Water action levels? The EPA has been trying to set guidelines for maximum levels of radon in water for municipal water systems for more than a decade. In 1999 the EPA proposed a double standard that set a level of 300 pCi/l for sates that had no radon in air program and 4000 pCi/l for states that have an active radon in air program. There are presently no recommended action levels from the EPA. The following New England states have set their own recommended action levels.
State Vermont Conn. Rhode Island Mass. Maine
pCi/L 4000 5000 5000 10,000 4000
Pennsylvania has not set a recommended action level of radon
4,000 is a lot higher than the 5 pCi/L stated on Attachment pg. 1
SCWA lies about it's Level per attachment Pg. 3